Cervical cancer


Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix. It is the second most common type of cancer in women and is often caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection is very common in women and can be spread through sexual contact. Early on, cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms. As the cancer progresses, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain during intercourse, and pelvic pain. Treatment for cervical cancer typically involves surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce the risk of mortality.


The early stages of cervical cancer usually have no symptoms.However, symptoms can begin to appear as the cancer progresses.

Common symptoms of cervical cancer include:

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding such as after sexual intercourse, between periods, or after menopause
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse
  • Pelvic pain or pressure
  • Pain during urination
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swollen legs


The primary known cause of cervical cancer is infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). While most people will be exposed to HPV during their lifetime, many cases of cervical cancer can be prevented with vaccination and routine screenings. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include smoking, multiple sexual partners, HIV infection, a weakened immune system, and family history of cervical cancer.

Risk factors

The primary risk factor for developing cervical cancer is infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Other risk factors include:

  • Early age of sexual activity
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • Smoking
  • Long-term oral contraceptive use
  • Poor diet
  • Weakened immune system caused by HIV/AIDS
  • Family history of cervical cancer
  • Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Age over 35 years old
  • Having never been screened for cervical cancer


Cervical cancer is typically diagnosed via a Pap smear test, which involves collecting cells from the cervix. A Pap smear may also be used to detect precancerous changes in the cervix. Additionally, further testing may be done with a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Depending on the results of the biopsy and other tests, a cervical cancer stage may be determined. Other tests used to diagnose cervical cancer may include imaging tests, such as an MRI, CT scan or PET scan, as well as blood tests.


There are two main subtypes of cervical cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the flattened, thin squamous cells that line the outer part of the cervix. It is typically found in women over the age of 30.

Adenocarcinoma appears in the glandular cells that line the cervical canal. It is more commonly found in young women in their reproductive years.

Additionally, there are two other very rare subtypes of cervical cancer: sarcoma and small cell carcinoma. Sarcoma arises from cells that form muscle or connective tissue, and small cell carcinoma is a type of fast-growing tumor that results from abnormal cell growth.


Treatment for cervical cancer varies by stage and may include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Surgery may be used to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue. Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. Targeted therapy is a newer form of treatment that uses medication to block the growth and spread of cancer cells.

Additional treatments may include cryosurgery, a procedure that freezes and destroys abnormal cells, and brachytherapy, which is a type of internal radiation therapy. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be recommended.

Every case is unique and treating cervical cancer requires a personalized treatment plan. It is important to discuss all available options with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of action for cervical cancer treatment.


There are several steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of cervical cancer.

  1. Get regular Pap tests: Pap tests detect changes in the cells of the cervix before cancer develops, allowing for early detection and treatment that can help prevent cervical cancer.
  2. Get the HPV vaccine: The HPV vaccine helps protect against several types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer and other types of HPV-related cancers.
  3. Practice safe sex: Consistent and correct use of condoms during vaginal, anal, and oral sex decreases the risk of HPV infection and can reduce the risk of cervical cancer.
  4. Quit smoking: Smoking is linked to many types of cancer, including cervical cancer, so quitting smoking is an important step for reducing the risk.
  5. Maintain a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese increases the risk of several types of cancer, including cervical cancer.
  6. Limit alcohol intake: Limiting alcohol intake is also an important step in reducing cancer risk.

Gender differences?

Yes, there are gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of Cervical cancer. Women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease than men due to various factors, such as HPV infection, age, and sexual behavior. Men are usually diagnosed at a later stage because they may be unaware of the signs and symptoms of Cervical cancer. Women are also more likely to require aggressive treatment for the disease than men. Treatment for Cervical cancer in women often includes a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, while men may only require surgery. Women are more likely to experience more side effects from treatments compared to men. Additionally, women often have a more difficult time with the psychological aspects of having the disease.


Nutrition plays an important role in the management of cervical cancer. Proper nutrition can help improve the effectiveness of cancer treatments and reduce their side effects. A well-balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables can help boost the immune system, reduce the risk of infection, and improve the quality of life of cancer patients. Additionally, a nutritious diet can help prevent further damage to the body and may even reduce the risk of recurrence of the cancer. Good nutrition can also reduce fatigue and help keep the body strong and healthy during cancer treatments. It is important for cervical cancer patients to receive nutritional counseling, so they can receive guidance on how to make the most of their diet to help reduce the risk of their cancer returning and to help improve their overall health.

Physical Activity

Physical activity has been linked to reduced risk of cervical cancer. It is believed that physical activity may help to reduce the risk of cervical cancer in several ways. It boosts the immune system, which helps to prevent certain infections that have been linked to cervical cancer. Furthermore, physical activity can also help to reduce obesity, which is a risk factor for this type of cancer. Studies have also suggested that physical activity can help to reduce levels of certain hormones that can contribute to higher risks of developing cervical cancer. Overall, physical activity can be an effective way of reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

Further Reading

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458716/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431093/
  3. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cervical-cancer
  4. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html
  5. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-cancer/about/what-is-cervical-cancer.html

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