Clostridium difficile


Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, and other forms of colitis. It is one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections, and is responsible for up to 29,000 deaths each year in the United States alone. C. difficile is usually spread through the fecal-oral route by means of contaminated hands, surfaces, and medical equipment, such as endoscopes. It is highly contagious and can survive in the environment for weeks. Treatment of C. difficile infection involves stopping the use of antibiotics, and taking medications such as metronidazole or vancomycin.


The primary symptoms of Clostridium difficile infection are diarrhea, abdominal cramping and pain, and fever. Additional symptoms may include loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, and rapid heart rate. Severe cases may present with dehydration, bloody stools, and severe abdominal pain.


Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can cause a range of symptoms from mild diarrhea to life-threatening infection of the colon. The most common cause of Clostridium difficile infection is antibiotic use, which disrupts the balance of bacteria in the gut and allows C. difficile to overgrow. Other known causes of C. difficile infection include weakened immune systems, older age, and hospitalization. In some cases, C. difficile can be acquired in the community, but this appears to be rare.

Risk factors

Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) include:

  • Advancing age
  • Recent antibiotic use, including broad-spectrum antibiotics
  • Long-term proton-pump inhibitor use
  • Use of immunosuppressant drugs or steroids
  • Prolonged hospital stays
  • Gastrointestinal surgery
  • Presence of a nasogastric tube or colonic stoma
  • Receiving medical care in a nursing home or long-term care facility
  • Use of enteral nutrition
  • Dialysis
  • Having a weakened immune system


Clostridium difficile is typically diagnosed via a stool sample, which is tested for the presence of toxins that are produced by C. difficile. The sample is also analyzed for the presence of the bacteria itself, although this testing is not always necessary as the toxins can indicate the presence of the bacteria without directly detecting it. Additionally, blood tests may be used to detect antibodies that are produced when the body is exposed to C. difficile.


There are three main subtypes of Clostridium difficile: the original strain (RT027), the hypervirulent strain (027/BI/NAP1/BI) and the epidemic strain (ribotype 078). The original strain, also known as RT027, was the first strain of C. difficile to be discovered and is characterized by its ability to produce toxins A and B. The hypervirulent strain, also known as 027/BI/NAP1/BI, is a variant of the original strain that has undergone a mutation that has enabled it to produce an additional toxin known as binary toxin A. This increased production of toxins can make the hypervirulent strain more likely to cause severe, life-threatening infections. The epidemic strain, also known as ribotype 078, is a more recently discovered strain of C. difficile and is characterized by its production of a novel toxin known as binary toxin B. While this strain has not yet been associated with a higher morbidity or mortality rate, its increased prevalence in certain regions has raised concerns about its potential for causing serious infections.


Treatment options for Clostridium difficile include antibiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplantation. Antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin are typically used to kill the C. difficile bacteria. Probiotics (beneficial bacteria) are often used to replace the destroyed bacteria and promote healthy gut bacteria. Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) is a procedure used to infuse healthy donor stool directly into the intestines of an infected person, thus restoring the balance of bacteria to the gut. Surgery may be recommended in more severe cases.


The best way to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile is to practice good hygiene, cleanliness, and precautionary measures. This includes washing hands regularly, avoiding contact with people who are infected, and avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and bedding with those who may be infected. It is also important to thoroughly clean surfaces and objects that are contaminated with C. difficile spores. Additionally, antibiotics should be taken only as prescribed, and any antibiotics left over should be disposed of properly. Finally, if someone has been diagnosed with C. difficile, it is important to follow the treatment plan prescribed by their healthcare provider.

Gender differences?

Yes, gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of Clostridium difficile have been observed. Studies have indicated that women tend to experience more severe symptoms of C. diff than men. Women are also more likely to experience recurrence of C. diff after completing antibiotic treatment.

When it comes to management of C. diff, studies have suggested that women tend to respond better to probiotic therapy than men. This improved response to probiotics in women may be due to their greater immune response to C. diff infection as well as their higher prevalence of gut microbiota imbalance.

In addition, women are more likely than men to experience an ‘overgrowth’ of C. diff following antibiotic treatment, which may be due to their decreased gastric acidity and increased gut permeability. This ‘overgrowth’ may contribute to their increased risk of recurrence and severity of symptoms.

Overall, although there are gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of C. diff, the differences may not be significant enough to warrant different treatment approaches for men and women.


Nutrition plays an important role in the management of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Nutritional support may be beneficial in improving gut health and decreasing symptoms of C. diff infection, especially during active infection. Nutritional interventions, including pro- and prebiotics, can help to restore the balance of good and bad bacteria in the gut, which can help lessen symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse. Additionally, increasing dietary fiber intake, consuming a wide variety of food sources including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and eating probiotic-rich foods, such as yogurt and kefir, may also aid in managing C. diff infection. Finally, maintaining good hydration is important for preventing and managing C. diff infection.

Physical Activity

Physical activity is not known to directly affect Clostridium difficile. However, physical activity does play a role in the prevention of C. difficile infection. Regular physical activity can help the body maintain a strong and healthy immune system, which can help protect against C. difficile and other infections. Additionally, regular physical activity can reduce stress, which is a risk factor for C. difficile, as stress can weaken the immune system. Accordingly, regular physical activity may help reduce a person’s risk of C. difficile infection.

Further Reading


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *