Ebola virus disease


Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe and often fatal infection caused by the Ebola virus. It affects humans and other primates, such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. EVD spreads through direct contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, vomit, or diarrhea. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, fatigue, muscle pain, sore throat, and diarrhea. Some cases may also develop more serious complications such as bleeding, shock, and organ failure. Treatment involves providing supportive care, such as oxygen and fluids, as well as administering experimental therapies. The mortality rate of EVD can range from 25 to 90 percent, depending on the strain of the virus and the quality of healthcare available. There is currently no vaccine available to prevent EVD, but public health help to reduce transmission.


The early symptoms of Ebola virus disease include fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat. As the virus progresses, symptoms can worsen and include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, internal and external bleeding. These symptoms can appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after infection with the virus.


The known causes of Ebola virus disease (EVD) are infection with one of the five strains of the Ebola virus. These five strains are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), Reston virus (RESTV) and Zaire virus (EBOV). The most deadly strain is EBOV, which is responsible for the majority of outbreak cases.

The viruses are transmitted to humans through close contact with the body fluids and organs of infected animals, such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys and antelopes. Infection can also occur through contact with humans who have been exposed to infected animals, or who are infected with the virus themselves. Transmission of the virus from person to person is then possible through contact with the body fluids of a person who has already been infected.

Risk factors

The risk factors for Ebola virus disease include:

  1. Having contact with an infected person’s bodily fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, vomit, and/or sweat.
  2. Living in or traveling to areas where Ebola is present.
  3. Contact with infected animals or consumption of their meat.
  4. Working in a healthcare setting without appropriate protective equipment and procedures.
  5. Having a weakened immune system.
  6. Participating in certain traditional funeral practices that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased person who had Ebola.


Ebola virus disease (EVD) is typically diagnosed through blood tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Other methods, such as antigen-capture detection tests and viral isolation by cell culture, are used to diagnose EVD as well. Symptoms alone are not enough to diagnose EVD, as the symptoms are similar to those of other diseases.


The Ebola virus is a highly infectious and deadly virus that can cause severe illness in humans and animals. It is part of the family of Filoviridae and is responsible for causing the Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola virus disease is an acute viral illness that can be fatal and is characterized by fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, sore throat, fatigue and other symptoms in the early stages.

The Ebola virus disease is classified into four distinct subtypes, which are:

  1. Zaire ebolavirus: This is the most common and deadliest subtype of the Ebola virus, and it is responsible for the most severe outbreaks. It is found in the region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  2. Sudan ebolavirus: This subtype was first identified in the region of Sudan and is responsible for several outbreaks of Ebola. It is the second most common subtype of the virus.
  3. Taï Forest ebolavirus: This subtype was first identified in the region of Ivory Coast and is responsible for several outbreaks of Ebola. It is the third most common subtype of the virus.
  4. Bundibugyo ebolavirus: This subtype was first identified in the region of Uganda and is responsible for several outbreaks of Ebola. It is the fourth most common subtype of the virus.


The primary treatment options for Ebola virus disease are supportive care, experimental therapies, and vaccines.

Supportive care includes rehydration therapy with oral or intravenous fluids, balancing electrolytes, maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure, and treating other infections if they occur.

Experimental therapies are treatments under investigation in clinical trials. This can include drugs, blood products from survivors, transfusions, gene therapy, and antiviral therapy.

Vaccines are the only preventive measure currently available. It is important to note that vaccines may not protect everyone and will likely require booster doses for long-term protection.


To reduce the risk of Ebola virus disease, it is important to practice good hygiene and avoid contact with the bodily fluids of people who are known to be infected or who may become infected. Avoid contact with any wild animals, as they can carry the virus.

It is also important to avoid traveling to countries experiencing an outbreak, and to take necessary precautions when visiting an outbreak-affected country. This includes avoiding contact with infected people, only eating prepared foods, and avoiding contact with the blood or bodily fluids of any animal.

Finally, practicing good hand hygiene and covering one’s mouth and nose with a mask and gloves during contact with others can help reduce the risk of infection. Vaccination is still under development, so it is particularly important to be aware of current outbreaks and to avoid international travel if possible.

Gender differences?

Research has shown that gender-specific differences could potentially affect the presentation and management of Ebola virus disease. For example, women are more likely to experience gastrointestinal symptoms, while men often experience hematological symptoms. Additionally, women are more likely to transmit the virus to others due to differences in social roles and gender norms. Furthermore, women are more likely to lack access to appropriate healthcare facilities and health information and are more vulnerable to the social and economic effects of Ebola. Lastly, gender differences in immunological responses have been observed, with women having a stronger inflammatory response due to production of more proinflammatory cytokines.

Given these discrepancies, healthcare providers should be aware of these differences in order to provide the best possible care for patients with Ebola. They should also be aware of the underlying gender norms that could potentially create obstacles to accessing medical care and take them into account when developing public health interventions. Additionally, more research should be conducted to further understand the underlying gender differences in order to ensure better patient outcomes.


Nutrition plays an important role in the management of Ebola virus disease. Proper nutrition helps to ensure the body is nourished and functional in fighting off the virus. Nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals can help strengthen the body’s immune system and speed up the recovery process. Additionally, adequate hydration is necessary in order to maintain organ health and circulation throughout the body. This may include oral rehydration solutions, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Finally, nutrition can also help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with Ebola by helping to boost the body’s facultative ability to fight off the virus.

Physical Activity

Physical activity has not been shown to have any direct effect on the severity or prevention of Ebola virus disease. However, physical activity, in general, is beneficial for building up overall physical health and can help keep the immune system functioning optimally, which could in turn possibly help support the body in fighting off the virus if someone is exposed. Aside from general physical health benefits, regular physical activity can also help to reduce stress and fatigue, two important factors in keeping the body functioning in optimal condition.

Further Reading

  1. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/index.html
  3. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/summaries.html
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4666536/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK401936/

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