Lactose intolerance


Lactose intolerance is a digestive disorder caused by an inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Symptoms of lactose intolerance typically include abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea after consuming dairy products. In some cases, lactose intolerance may be caused by a lack of the enzyme lactase, which helps to digest the lactose molecule. Treatment typically involves avoiding dairy products or taking supplemental lactase.


The symptoms of lactose intolerance vary from person to person, but can include: abdominal pain, bloating, gas, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation. Other symptoms may include headaches, fatigue, and joint pains. People with severe lactose intolerance may also experience a skin rash.


The most common cause of lactose intolerance is an inherited trait. This means a person has a deficiency in the enzyme lactase, which is necessary to breakdown lactose in the digestive tract. Other causes include damage to the small intestine due to an illness or surgery, a reaction to certain medications, or age-related changes that can cause a decrease in the amount of lactase produced in the body.

Risk factors

The primary risk factor for lactose intolerance is genetics. People with certain ethnic backgrounds, such as people of African, Asian, Hispanic, or American Indian descent, are more likely to have the condition. Other risk factors include premature birth, certain digestive and intestinal disorders, and a history of dairy allergy.


Lactose intolerance can be diagnosed through a lactose tolerance test, a blood test, or a hydrogen breath test, in which the patient consumes a lactose-filled beverage and then exhales into a device that detects the amount of hydrogen in their breath. A higher amount of hydrogen, which would be produced by the bacteria in the patient’s body breaking down the lactose, indicates that the patient has lactose intolerance.


The three main subtypes of lactose intolerance are Primary, Secondary and Congenital Lactase Deficiency.

Primary Lactose Intolerance is the most common form, often seen in adults. It occurs when the body stops producing enough of the enzyme lactase to break down the lactose in dairy products. Symptoms can include abdominal bloating and pain, diarrhoea, flatulence and nausea.

Secondary Lactose Intolerance occurs when there is an underlying cause that results in a lack of lactase. This is often due to an illness, surgery or medication that damages the intestine and prevents the production of lactase.

Congenital Lactase Deficiency is the rarest form of lactose intolerance and is present from birth. It occurs when there is a gene defect and the body cannot produce any lactase. Symptoms may be severe and require a lifelong avoidance of lactose in order to prevent them.


The treatment for lactose intolerance typically involves a combination of dietary modifications and lifestyle changes, as well as the use of lactase replacement therapies. The primary goal of treatment is to avoid the symptoms and prevent digestive problems that can be caused by consuming dairy products.

  1. Dietary modifications and lifestyle changes:
  • Limiting or avoiding foods that contain lactose
  • Eating smaller, more frequent meals
  • Eating lactose-free or low-lactose foods
  • Taking lactase enzyme supplements
  • Eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise
    1. Lactase replacement therapy:
  • Taking prescribed lactase enzyme tablets or drops before eating dairy products
  • Replacing dairy products with lactose-free alternatives
  • Consuming dairy products in smaller amounts and at different times of the day
  • In some cases, a doctor may also recommend prescription medications to reduce symptoms of lactose intolerance.


    The best way to reduce the risk of lactose intolerance is to limit the amount of dairy products consumed. It’s also helpful to substitute dairy products with lactose-free alternatives, such as soy or almond milks, yogurt, and cheese. Additionally, consuming dairy with other foods may help to reduce symptoms. Taking digestive enzyme supplements that contain lactase can make it easier for the body to digest lactose. Finally, it’s important to consult a doctor if symptoms become severe or persist.

    Gender differences?

    Yes, there are gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of lactose intolerance. Studies have shown that the prevalence of lactose intolerance is higher in males than in females. Additionally, lactose intolerance is more severe in males than in females and occurs at an earlier age. Furthermore, lactose intolerance is more likely to be associated with abdominal pain in men than in women. In terms of management, women may benefit from a longer period of lactose avoidance as well as a lower threshold for reintroducing lactose than men. Lastly, men may be more likely to adhere to a lactose avoidance diet than women.


    Nutrition plays a key role in the management of lactose intolerance. Eating a diet rich in lactose-free foods can help reduce symptoms of lactose intolerance and provide adequate amounts of essential vitamins and minerals. For example, eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, plant-based proteins, and lactose-free dairy alternatives can provide essential nutrients while including lactose-free foods in the diet. Additionally, taking digestive enzymes that contain lactase can be beneficial to lactose intolerant individuals, as it can help break down the lactose molecules in order for them to be absorbed in the small intestines. Lastly, it is important to be mindful of additives that may contain lactose and to read food labels carefully when selecting foods.

    Physical Activity

    Physical activity does not directly affect Lactose intolerance. However, it can indirectly impact how symptoms of lactose intolerance manifest. For example, light to moderate exercise such as walking or jogging can help reduce the production of certain hormones in the body which can decrease the symptoms associated with lactose intolerance. Additionally, exercising can help improve digestion and absorption of nutrients in the body, thus reducing the symptoms associated with lactose intolerance. Therefore, including physical activity into one’s daily routine may help reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

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