Parkinson’s disease


Parkinson’s disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects an estimated 1 million people in the United States. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing nerve cells in the brain. Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can include tremors, slowed movement, rigid muscles, impaired balance and coordination, speech changes, and difficulty with walking. There is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease; however, medications, therapies, and lifestyle modifications may help reduce symptoms and minimize progression of the disease.


The primary symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include: tremors, stiffness and/or slowness of movement, difficulty with balance, difficulty speaking, writing or maintaining a pen grip, depressed mood and/or apathy, and memory issues. Other symptoms include excessive saliva, vision changes, impaired smell, insomnia, constipation, excessive sweating, fatigue and depression.


The exact cause of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is not known, however there are a few known factors that can increase your risk for developing PD. These include age; people over the age of 60 are more likely to develop PD, certain genetic factors such as mutations in the genes SNCA and PARK2; environmental toxins such as certain pesticides; and certain viral infections. Further research is being done to identify the cause of PD.

Risk factors

The exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but certain factors can increase a person’s risk of developing the condition. Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease include:

  • Age: The risk of Parkinson’s increases with age, especially after age 50.
  • Genetics: The condition is more likely to occur in people who have a family member who has Parkinson’s.
  • Gender: Men appear to be more likely to develop Parkinson’s than women.
  • Exposure to environmental toxins: Exposure to toxins such as pesticides, herbicides, and industrial chemicals may increase the risk of Parkinson’s.
  • Head injuries: Studies suggest that a history of head trauma may increase the risk of Parkinson’s.
  • Certain medical conditions: People with diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis may be more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease.


Parkinson’s disease is usually diagnosed based on a person’s medical history and neurological exam. The doctor may also look for physical signs that suggest the disease, such as trembling or difficulty initiating movement. Additionally, the doctor may order tests such as blood tests or brain scans to look for other causes of the symptoms. Finally, the doctor may refer to other specialists to confirm the diagnosis.


Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects movement, causing tremors, stiffness, and changes in how a person walks or speaks. It is caused by a loss of neurons in the brain. There are various subtypes of Parkinson’s disease, including the following:

  1. Primary Parkinsonism: This type of Parkinson’s is caused by unknown factors and is the most common type of Parkinson’s.
  2. Secondary Parkinsonism: This subtype is caused by underlying illnesses, medications, or other external factors rather than by a degeneration of cells.
  3. Atypical/Rare Parkinsonism: This subtype is characterized by atypical or rare forms of Parkinson’s disease such as multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration.
  4. Juvenile Parkinsonism: This subtype is characterized by Parkinson’s symptoms that present in children or adolescents.
  5. Dementia Parkinsonism: This subtype includes Parkinson’s disease with dementia, which is a form of Parkinson’s disease that also includes cognitive and behavioral changes.


The treatment options for Parkinson’s disease vary depending on the individual patient’s case and can depend on the severity of the symptoms or the progression of the disease. Treatment options can include medications, surgical interventions and lifestyle changes.

Medications: The primary medications used to help treat Parkinson’s disease and its symptoms are levodopa, dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Other medications can also be used to treat non-motor symptoms that can accompany Parkinson’s such as sleep disturbances, depression, and anxiety.

Surgical Interventions: Deep brain stimulation is a surgical intervention used to treat the symptoms of advanced Parkinson’s disease and involves implanting an electrical device in the person’s brain that sends electrical signals to specific areas to help control the symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes: Exercise, diet, social interaction, and speech and occupational therapy can all help to reduce Parkinson’s disease symptoms and improve quality of life.


There are a few things that can be done to reduce the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Primarily, it is important to live a healthy lifestyle and practice regular exercise. Eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables can help prevent the onset of the disease. Additionally, avoiding certain environmental toxins, such as certain pesticides, can help lower the risk of developing the disease. Furthermore, managing stress levels and engaging in regular cognitive activities to keep the mind active can help reduce the risk of Parkinson’s. Finally, early detection and diagnosis is key, and regular checkups with your doctor or healthcare provider can identify signs of Parkinson’s disease early on.

Gender differences?

Yes, there are gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of Parkinson’s disease. Women tend to have greater motor symptoms such as tremor, balance problems, and gait difficulties at a younger age than men. Additionally, women with Parkinson’s disease may report more severe non-motor symptoms than men such as depression and anxiety. Furthermore, women with Parkinson’s disease may experience greater levels of physical disability than men with the same level of motor symptoms.

In terms of management, women are more likely to respond positively to treatments such as deep brain stimulation and may experience more significant motor improvements as a result of these interventions. In addition, women may also be more sensitive to certain medications and may require lower doses than men in order to experience the same level of efficacy. Finally, women may also need to receive more frequent follow-up care and monitoring due to the greater risk of cognitive decline associated with Parkinson’s disease.


Nutrition plays an important role in the management of Parkinson’s disease. Nutrition helps to provide the essential nutrients the body needs to maintain normal metabolism and function. By getting the right amount of essential vitamins, minerals, proteins, fats and carbohydrates, individuals can reduce the progression Parkinson’s disease. It is also believed that proper nutrition can help to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and slow its progression. Eating a balanced diet is essential for maintaining good health, as well as managing Parkinson’s disease. Eating small meals throughout the day while limiting high-fat and high-sugar foods can help maintain proper nutrition. Additionally, some foods can help improve brain function, reduce inflammation and help with motor control. Such foods include fish, walnuts, blueberries, leafy green vegetables and low-fat dairy products. Supplements may be recommended to help manage the specific needs of people with Parkinson’s disease.

Physical Activity

Physical activity can be beneficial for people living with Parkinson’s disease. Regular physical activity can help maintain strength, endurance, and mobility, as well as help manage symptoms like fatigue, balance and coordination problems, stiffness, and tremors. Exercise can also help improve mood and quality of life, reduce stress, and help to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. It is recommended that people with Parkinson’s try to become involved in physical activity, such as walking, swimming, biking, or Tai Chi, as part of a regular exercise routine.

Further Reading


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