Sjogren’s syndrome


Sjogren’s Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder that affects the body’s moisture-producing glands, resulting in a decrease in the production of tears and saliva. This can lead to dry eyes, dry mouth, fatigue, joint pain and swelling, rashes, and recurrent infections. People with Sjogren’s Syndrome are also more likely to develop certain types of lymphoma. Treatment for Sjogren’s Syndrome typically involves medications to reduce inflammation, address symptoms, and promote proper moisture production.


Symptoms of Sjogren’s syndrome include dry eyes, dry mouth, fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, swollen salivary glands, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, and dry or burning sensations in the eyes, nose or throat. Other associated symptoms may include dry skin, dry cough, vaginal dryness, dryness of the nose, recurrent dental and/or sinus infections, dryness of the nails, and unexplained changes in the blood.


The exact cause of Sjogren’s syndrome is still unknown, however research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors could play a role in the onset of the disease. Some of the known genetic factors associated with the disorder are certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA) types such as HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8, as well as other genes related to the immune system.

Environmental factors that are speculated to increase the risk of developing Sjogren’s Syndrome include infection with certain viruses and bacteria, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, enteroviruses, Cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Exposure to certain drugs, toxins or chemicals, such as nitrosamines or hydrocarbons, may also be potential risk factors for the condition. Additionally, hormonal changes such as those found in pregnancy or menopause may be associated with the development of Sjogren’s Syndrome.

Risk factors

The exact cause of Sjogren’s syndrome is unknown; however, there are certain risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing the condition. These factors include:

  • Age: Sjogren’s syndrome is most common in people over the age of 40.
  • Gender: Women are nine times more likely to develop Sjogren’s syndrome than men.
  • Family history: Having a relative with Sjogren’s syndrome increases the risk.
  • Ethnicity: Sjogren’s syndrome is more common among people of northern European and Asian descent.
  • Autoimmune diseases: People with other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, are at a higher risk of developing Sjogren’s syndrome.
  • Exposure to certain viruses: Certain viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, have been linked to an increased risk of developing Sjogren’s syndrome.


Sjogren’s syndrome is typically diagnosed based on an evaluation of the patient’s symptoms and a physical examination, as well as results from tests that assess the patient’s immune system and levels of autoantibodies. A sample of the patient’s saliva or tears may be taken and analyzed to determine the levels of various proteins or enzymes that are typically reduced in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Other tests may include an eye exam to assess the production of tears, a blood test to look for autoantibodies, an x-ray or other imaging scan of the salivary glands, and a biopsy of the labial salivary glands.


Sjogren’s Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in dry mouth and dry eyes. It can also affect other body systems and organs. There are three main subtypes of Sjogren’s Syndrome.

Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome is the most common subtype. It occurs when the body’s immune system mistakenly targets and attacks the moisture-producing glands in the body, causing dry eyes and dry mouth. It can also cause other symptoms like fatigue, joint pain, rashes, and even organ failure.

Secondary Sjogren’s Syndrome is a form of Sjogren’s Syndrome that occurs in people who already have another autoimmune disorder. It is usually associated with diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma.

Sicca Syndrome is a non-autoimmune form of Sjogren’s Syndrome. Also known as dry eye syndrome, it is caused by environmental factors such as a dry climate or long-term exposure to wind or dust. It can also be a side effect of some medications. Symptoms are similar to Sjogren’s Syndrome, but in general tend to be less severe.


The treatment options for Sjogren’s syndrome vary depending on the individual. It is important for people with Sjogren’s syndrome to be monitored by a physician to assess the full impact of their condition. Generally, the most common treatment options for Sjogren’s syndrome include medications, lifestyle changes, and surgeries.

Medications are typically used to help reduce inflammation, dryness and pain associated with the condition. Common medications used to treat Sjogren’s syndrome include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunomodulators, antimalarial drugs, and biologic therapies.

Lifestyle changes to reduce symptoms may include drinking plenty of fluids, using artificial tears, avoiding dry environments and breathing with a nasal saline spray. Additionally, humidifiers may help to reduce air dryness in the home.

Finally, surgeries may be recommended to help improve the function of certain organs. These may include surgeries to repair salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and eyelids. In more severe cases, some people may be recommended to receive a stem cell transplant.


The best way to reduce the risk of developing Sjogren’s syndrome is to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This includes eating a nutritious diet, getting regular exercise, avoiding smoking, and ensuring proper hydration. Additionally, reducing stress levels, avoiding environmental hazards and toxins, and getting adequate sunlight exposure may also reduce the risk of developing Sjogren’s syndrome. Regular visits to a doctor are also important in order to monitor any changes in the body.

Gender differences?

There may indeed be gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of Sjogren’s syndrome. Women are more likely to develop Sjogren’s syndrome than men, with the condition occurring much more commonly in those between the ages of 40 to 60. Women tend to experience more severe symptoms, such as dry eyes and dry mouth, than men. In addition, women suffer from more systemic symptoms, such as joint pain and fatigue, than men. Furthermore, women are more likely to develop other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, in conjunction with Sjogren’s syndrome.

The management of Sjogren’s syndrome also may differ between women and men. Generally speaking, women are prescribed more aggressive immunosuppressive treatments, such as biologic agents and steroid medications. However, some of these treatments may not be as effective in men. Additionally, different hormonal treatments may be recommended for women with Sjogren’s syndrome due to the potential for hormone fluctuations to worsen symptoms.


Nutrition plays a critical role in the management of Sjogren’s Syndrome. Proper nutrition can help to reduce the inflammation associated with the disease, as well as reduce stress levels and boost the immune system. Eating a balanced diet of nutrient-rich foods, such as lean proteins, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can help to reduce inflammation and reduce symptoms like dry eyes and mouth, and joint pain. Additionally, drinking plenty of water can help to keep the body hydrated, improve digestion, and reduce fatigue. Eating a healthy diet and avoiding processed foods and those high in sugar and saturated fat can also help to manage the symptoms of Sjogrens Syndrome.

Physical Activity

Physical activity can help manage the symptoms associated with Sjogren’s syndrome. Exercise can help to increase flexibility, strength, and range of motion of the joints and muscles, which may help to minimize the stiffness and fatigue associated with the condition. Additionally, physical activity can help to decrease pain and stiffness associated with swollen joints, and improve balance and coordination. Regular exercise also has a positive impact on overall mental health, which can be beneficial as Sjogren’s syndrome can lead to depression and anxiety.

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