Thrush is a type of yeast infection caused by a fungus called Candida. This type of infection most commonly affects the mucous membranes of the mouth, causing whitish patches and red irritation. Common symptoms of thrush include a burning sensation in the mouth, loss of taste and an uncomfortable feeling when eating. Thrush can also cause a sore throat, difficulty swallowing and a bad taste in the mouth. Treatments for thrush include antifungal medications such as nystatin, clotrimazole and fluconazole. Oral rinses and lozenges may also be used to help manage symptoms.


The most common symptom of Thrush is a thick, white, cottage cheese-like discharge in the vagina. Other symptoms may include:

  • Itching, burning or soreness in the vagina and/or vulva
  • Redness and swelling of the vagina and/or vulva
  • Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse
  • Pain or discomfort when urinating
  • A thick, white coating on the tongue, in the throat, or on the tonsils
  • A cotton-like feeling in the mouth
  • Loss of taste
  • Bad breath


The most common cause of thrush is an overgrowth of Candida albicans, a type of fungus that naturally lives in the mouth and digestive system. Other known causes include certain medications, such as antibiotics and corticosteroids, which can disrupt the normal balance of organisms in the body; a weakened immune system; and diabetes, which can affect how the body manages sugar levels. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, and using dentures can also contribute to thrush.

Risk factors

Risk factors for Thrush include:

  1. Taking antibiotics or corticosteroid medications for an extended period of time as antibiotics kill the “good” bacteria that helps to keep a natural balance of organisms in the body.
  2. Weakness of the immune system, such as in those with AIDS, cancer, or diabetes, as well as those recovering from surgery.
  3. Hormonal imbalance due to pregnancy, the use of birth control pills, or menopause.
  4. Uncontrolled diabetes as high blood sugar levels can increase the risk of Thrush.
  5. Taking oral contraceptives or antibiotics for an extended period of time.
  6. Ingesting excessive amounts of sugar or yeast-containing foods, such as bread.
  7. Wearing dentures that don’t fit properly.
  8. Smoking, as this can weaken the immune system and make it easier for thrush to develop.
  9. Having dry mouth or a condition that reduces saliva production, as saliva helps to keep the mouth clean and helps to prevent the growth of yeast.


Thrush is typically diagnosed by examining the mouth and throat and obtaining a sample of the infection. In some cases, a swab of the area may be taken and sent to a laboratory to be tested. Your healthcare provider may also use a lighted microscope called a KOH test to look for yeast cells in the sample. Other tests such as a throat culture, urine culture, or blood test may be ordered to look for other causes of the symptoms.


Thrush is an infection caused by a fungal organism called Candida albicans. It usually manifests in the form of a white, creamy deposit on the mouth, tongue, tonsils, or throat, although it can also occur on the genitals and other areas.

The most common subtypes of thrush are:

  1. Oral Thrush — This type of thrush is most commonly found in the mouth, on the tongue, inner cheeks, and gums. It is easily identified by its white, creamy appearance. Oral thrush is generally not contagious and can be treated with antifungal medications.
  2. Esophageal Thrush — This type of thrush can cause pain and difficulty swallowing. It can spread to other parts of the digestive system, such as the esophageal lining, and is often linked to other severe medical conditions.
  3. Genital/Vaginal Thrush — This type of thrush is most common in women and can cause itching, burning, and discharge in the vaginal area. It is usually spread through sexual contact and can be treated with topical or oral antifungal medications.
  4. Invasive Thrush — This is a more serious type of thrush that can spread to other parts of the body, including the blood and organs. Invasive thrush requires aggressive treatment with medications such as amphotericin B and Fluconazole.


Treatment options for Thrush include:

  1. Antifungal medications taken orally or applied directly to the affected skin or mucous membranes. This can include fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B.
  2. Antifungal medication applied to the affected area in the form of a cream, ointment, or pessary. Clotrimazole, miconazole, and nystatin are examples of commonly used antifungal medications.
  3. Gentian violet applied to the affected area of the skin or mucous membranes may help to reduce the symptoms of Thrush.
  4. Probiotics, including lactobacillus acidophilus, may be taken orally to help rebalance the levels of beneficial bacteria in the body.
  5. Home remedies, such as a saltwater rinse, may be able to help reduce the symptoms of Thrush.
  6. Eating a healthy diet that includes yogurt with active cultures, foods containing probiotics, and avoiding sugary and processed foods may also help reduce the risk of developing Thrush in the future.


The best way to reduce the risk of developing thrush is to practice good hygiene and to keep up with regular medical check-ups. Avoiding overly tight clothing, wearing breathable cotton underwear, and keeping the genital area dry and clean can help reduce moisture around the area and decrease the risk of developing thrush. Eating a balanced and healthy diet, avoiding smoking, and limiting the amount of alcohol consumed may also help lower the risk of developing thrush. Additionally, if you are taking antibiotics, it is important to take probiotics, as this helps to restore the balance of beneficial bacteria in the body, which helps to reduce the risk of developing thrush.

Gender differences?

Yes, there are gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of Thrush. In women, thrush may be accompanied by vaginal discharge and itching, while in men it may appear as a rash or redness on the penis. Additionally, women may experience burning during urination, while men may experience difficulty in retracting their foreskin. Other symptoms may include redness, swelling, and soreness of the vulva and vagina in women, and swelling and redness at the tip of the penis in men.

In the management of Thrush, there are differences based on gender as well. Women may be prescribed antifungal medication in the form of a cream, suppository, or pill, while men may benefit from topical antifungal creams or ointments. Additionally, women may be advised to avoid soap and to keep the area clean and dry during treatment, while men may need to pull back the foreskin and wash it regularly during treatment.


Nutrition is an important and often overlooked factor when managing thrush. Eating a balanced diet with the appropriate balance of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients is essential to keeping a healthy immune system that can fight off infection. Additionally, certain foods can support a healthy gut microbiome, which can help maintain a healthy balance of beneficial bacteria that can help prevent thrush. Foods like Greek yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut, and miso contain beneficial probiotics that can help maintain balance in the gut. Foods rich in vitamin C and zinc, like bell peppers, garlic, and nuts, can also help fight off infection and boost immunity. Lastly, avoiding sugary and processed foods can help manage thrush, as they can disrupt the delicate balance of bacteria in the gut and increase the risk of infection.

Physical Activity

Physical activity does not directly affect thrush, however it can indirectly affect thrush with certain conditions. For example, if someone is exercising for long periods of time and is not taking proper care of their hygiene, this can cause increased sweat and wetness, which can create a breeding ground for fungi such as candida (the fungus responsible for thrush). Additionally, if someone is wearing tight clothing while exercising, this can also create an environment that is favorable for fungi growth. To prevent the growth of fungi and potential outbreaks of thrush, people should practice good hygiene by washing their body with an anti-fungal soap after exercise, wear loose-fitting clothing during exercise, and dry their body completely after showering.

Further Reading


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *