Trigeminal neuralgia


Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic, painful condition which affects the trigeminal nerve, the nerve responsible for sensory functions in the face. Symptoms typically include intense, sharp, electric shock-like pain on one side of the face, ranging in duration from a few seconds to several minutes. This pain can be triggered by activities such as brushing teeth, eating, applying makeup, or even speaking. In some cases, the pain can persist for days or weeks at a time, making it highly disruptive to daily life. Treatment options vary, but commonly include medications, nerve blocks, and surgery.


The primary symptom of trigeminal neuralgia is sudden, severe, electric-shock-like facial pain that typically affects one side of the jaw, cheek, or lip. It is often described as sudden shocks of intense burning, stabbing, or shooting pain that can last from a few seconds to several minutes. Often it is triggered by touching or brushing against a certain area of the face, eating, drinking, speaking, or laughing. Other common symptoms may include facial numbness and tenderness, difficulty speaking, and a sensation that the face is swollen.


The exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is unknown. However, it is thought to be caused by a blood vessel pressing on the nerve, injury or irritation of the nerve, swelling of the nerve, or a tumor, infection, or multiple sclerosis.

Risk factors

The risk factors for trigeminal neuralgia include:

  1. Age: The risk of trigeminal neuralgia increases with age, with the average age of onset being 58–60 years old.
  2. Gender: Trigeminal neuralgia is more common among women than men.
  3. Health conditions: Certain neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy, may increase the risk of developing trigeminal neuralgia.
  4. Family history: The risk of developing trigeminal neuralgia is higher if a close family member has the condition.
  5. Head trauma: Head injuries can cause permanent damage to the trigeminal nerve and increase the risk of developing trigeminal neuralgia.
  6. Blood vessel compression: Compression of blood vessels near the trigeminal nerve can cause pain and lead to trigeminal neuralgia.
  7. Certain medications: Certain medications, such as lithium, can increase the risk of trigeminal neuralgia.


Trigeminal neuralgia is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and a review of the patient’s medical history. The doctor may also order imaging studies such as an MRI or CT scan to rule out other conditions. In some cases, a nerve conduction test or brain stem auditory evoked response may be used to better understand the exact cause of the pain. In addition, the doctor may use blood tests to check for any signs of infection.


Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a form of chronic neuropathic facial pain that is characterized by paroxysms of intense, electric shock-like pain on one side of the face. It is divided into two subtypes: classic and atypical.

Classic TN is characterized by sudden, short duration of intense pain episodes that usually last a few seconds to a few minutes. These episodes typically occur in response to light touch, such as brushing teeth or applying makeup. It is usually triggered by nerve stimulation such as wind, climate changes, or a simple touch or stimulus.

Atypical TN is characterized by a longer duration of pain and less frequent episodes than classic TN. It is also less sensitive to light touch than classic TN but can still be triggered by nerve stimulation. Atypical TN is much less common but is typically more resistant to treatment than classic TN.

Although both types of TN are considered chronic pain disorders, they can be managed through a combination of medications, physical therapy, nerve blocks, and other treatments.


The primary treatment for Trigeminal neuralgia is medication. Common medications that may be prescribed include anticonvulsants, such as Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenytoin, and Gabapentin. Antidepressants such as Nortriptyline may also be prescribed. In some cases, a procedure such as radiofrequency ablation, nerve block, or microvascular decompression may be recommended.


To reduce the risk of Trigeminal neuralgia, it is recommended to practice stress management techniques such as yoga, deep breathing exercises, regular exercise, and meditation. It is also important to maintain a healthy lifestyle by getting enough rest, avoiding alcohol, and avoiding extreme temperatures. Additionally, taking certain medications such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and local anesthetics may help reduce the risk of Trigeminal neuralgia. Surgery may also be an option for those who have recurrent episodes or who do not respond to medications.

Gender differences?

Yes, there are gender-specific differences in the presentation and management of Trigeminal neuralgia. Studies have found that women are more likely to experience recurrent episodes of pain than men and that they are more likely to experience dull facial pain, rather than sharp stabbing pain. Additionally, women are also more likely to experience a longer duration of pain.

In terms of management of Trigeminal neuralgia, studies have shown that women are more sensitive to the side effects of medications used to treat Trigeminal neuralgia, such as anticonvulsants and antidepressants, than men. Furthermore, women are more likely to require more aggressive medical treatments, such as nerve blocks, gamma knife radiosurgery, and rhizotomy, to manage their symptoms.


Nutrition plays an important role in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Eating healthy, balanced meals that contain a variety of nutritious foods can help to reduce inflammation, promote nerve health, and provide the body with necessary vitamins and minerals to support its natural healing processes. Additionally, avoiding certain foods that may trigger trigeminal neuralgia, such as processed foods, fried foods, and spicy foods, can also help to reduce symptoms. Certain supplements, such as vitamin B12 and Coenzyme Q10, may also help to reduce pain and inflammation. Lastly, staying well-hydrated can help to reduce pressure on nerves, further reducing trigeminal neuralgia symptoms.

Physical Activity

Physical activity can be a very helpful tool in managing Trigeminal neuralgia pain. Regular physical activity can help reduce stress, which can help reduce facial pain. It can also help increase blood flow in the trigeminal nerve, which can help reduce pain. Furthermore, exercise can help distract from the pain and make it easier to cope. Additionally, physical activity can help reduce fatigue and improve overall sleep quality, which can better manage Trigeminal neuralgia symptoms.

Further Reading


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